Naples (Italian: Napoli, Neapolitan: Nàpule) is the capital city of the Campania region and the Province of Naples. Its ancient name was Neapolis, that is "new city". Its metropolitan area is the second most populated in Italy and one of the largest in Europe.

It is located halfway between the volcano, Vesuvius and a separate volcanic area, the Campi Flegrei, both of which form part of the Campanian volcanic arc.

The city itself in the central area has a population of around 1 million, the inhabitants are known as Neapolitans, (Italian: napoletani) or poetically partenopei. It is rich in historical, artistic and cultural traditions and gastronomy. The Historic Centre of Naples is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site The Neapolitan language is the geographically most diffuse Italian language, similar variations of the Neapolitan dialect
('o napulitano) are spoken throughout most of southern Italy.

Between 1266 and 1861, Naples was the capital of the Kingdom of Naples (later of the Two Sicilies), usually simply indicated as "the Kingdom", other Italian states having different denominations. This history, coupled with its size, has given Naples the unofficial status of being the capital of the Italian south (Il Mezzogiorno).

In the modern day, the city is served by Naples International Airport at Capodichino, a civil airport hosted by a military one, once outside the city, now surrounded by built up area.

Naples was founded between the 7th and 6th centuries BC by the Greeks (actually, by inhabitants of the Greek colony Cuma) and was given the name Neapolis, meaning new city in Greek.

During the period of Roman domination, the city preserved its Greek language and customs. Following the Roman period, the city was dominated by many different groups of people (Goths, Byzantines, Lombards, Normans, Swabians, Angevins, Aragonese, Spaniards, Austrians, Bourbons and revolutionary French).

Nowadays one can see the traces of all those rulers in the monuments, in the culture and in the habits of the city. In 1266 the Angevins moved the capital of the Kingdom of Sicily from Palermo to Naples. Sicily soon parted and formed an independent Kingdom of Sicily. After the Congress of Vienna (from late September, 1814, to 9 June 1815, after the Napoleanic wars) Naples became the capital of the united Kingdom of Two Sicilies. After a long period of decline following the creation of the Italian State over 100 years ago, the city is making strides in recovering its eminence as a centre for culture.